The author considers the metaphysics of Aristotle in its significance for the aesthetics and the philosophy of music, where the music is, first of all, by its nature is presented as a substance (essence, consisting in movement, rhythm, among other things, the divine mind) and, secondly, as a becoming shape musical art, the value of human interaction with the world. In the author’s interpretation of the Aristotelian doctrine of the essence, the music is becoming substantialistically musical being. In the making of the musical form the laws of the logos, Mind, creation. Concepts: substance (essence), matter and form, entelechy, energy - are considered in the context of aesthetics and musical art. The author draws attention to the fact that the issue of music as an art form in the world of human existence, Aristotle was interested in music for the purpose of man, where he shared a professional work and making music, you need to nurture. Noting its purpose, according to the philosopher said, pleasure, recreation, virtue, purification of the soul, it was found that the ability of music to influence the moral aspect of the soul remained for him an open problem. Aristotle’s metaphysics approved idea of music as a musical form and substance as a process music as a means of value of human interaction with the world, which makes the belief in the stability of the laws of becoming of musical forms.
The article deals with representatives of creative minority (the term by H. Bergson, A.J. Toynbee) in the process of social development. Satyagrahis play the similar role in M.K. Gandhi’s philosophy. This term originates from the central conception of Indian thinker - Satyagraha. It means the calling for resistance of moral developed person to all injustice around him by means of his soul-force. Gandhi’s image of an ideal man and his understanding of the role of such man in social-dynamical processes shows that philosopher’s intellectual and cultural features influenced his views. So, being the thinker, formed on the joint of two cultures (culture of traditional society and Modernity), Gandhi gives to his image of an ideal man Eastern and Western qualities. He offers to combine the moral rigor of traditional Indian ascetic with social activity, freedom and sense of personal responsibility, which are characteristic for individualistic ethics of Modernity. At the same time he rejects the understanding of social development as a technical progress, which is widespread in the West. The thinker connects this process with the personal improvement and harmonization of social relationships. The latter is impossible without participation of mediators between different social forces. Realizing this fact, Gandhi called his followers to become mediators between quarreling religious communities, castes and political parties in order to conciliate them. Such understanding of social development was in large part determined by social image of the thinker. Being the person formed on the crossroad of intercultural communications, Gandhi himself played the role of mediator between the Hindus and Mussulmans, between high-caste Hindus and untouchables, between different branches of Indian national congress, between economical elites and pure masses.
The article discusses the debate in the German and Anglo-American Neo-Kantianism, enduring, around the ethical theories of Ernst Cassirer. Unlike their teachers in Marburg school Cohen and Natorp that defined ethics as an important part of a philosophical system, the philosopher did not write any work on ethics. In the article there are parallels between the ethics of the Cohen and ethics of Natorp. Cassirer refers to the ethics of Kant not only for the purpose of disclosing the specifics of their own genetic approach and critical method, but also tries to reconstruct the underlying concepts - the concept of autonomy and the concept of freedom, individual personality, which became the starting points in the system of ethical idealism. The boundary between own knowledge and understanding of the world, lies between being and proper, necessary and possible. For Cassirer’s ethical thought of Kant is the most important condition of overcoming of naturalism and epistemological constraints of the program Marburg school. Disputes, which began about the philosophical legacy of Cassirer in 50-ies of XX century, today once again became topical in connection with the discussion of his belonging to the Neo-Kantianism. Turning point becomes emigration philosopher from Germany after the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship. In Anglo-American literature this stage in his artistic biography is defined as a cultural philosophy and anthropological, fully borivali with the legacy of Kant’s transcendental philosophy. The article reveals own theoretical position Cassirer formed during neokantians influence and specifically expressed in the justification of a critical ethics of Kant. His congeniality with Kant is manifested in the development of semiotic choices transcendental philosophy. The article substantiates the position that ethical motives and critical Cassirer’s position can be found in a late stage of creation, when the philosopher in “The Myth of the State” reveals the transcendental history of moral consciousness.
Zwahlen Regula M.
The Ideas of Leo Tolstoy are one of the key catalyzers for the emergence of the “new religious consciousness” and religious philosophy at the beginning of the XX century in Russia. Many religious philosophers who, unlike Leo Tolstoy, believed in the possibility of reforming the Russian Orthodox Church, developed a detailed arguments both for and against Tolstoy’s moral doctrine. As for faith in Christ resurrection, art of understanding, attitude to “this world”, progress and culture, many of them followed the ideas of Vladimir Solovyov, who had sharply criticized the views of Leo Tolstoy. In 1912 the publishing house called “The Way” released a book “About Leo Tolstoy’s religion”, it was dedicated to the memory of the deceased Count in 1910, which would serve as “his own great task” - “religious awakening of modern society” - and at the same time to deal with the errors of Tolstoy. The results of debate with the Tolstoy’s religion had given a good basis for the projections of the key issues of Russian philosophy: first, the relationship between faith and reason, and secondly, the relationship between spirit and nature, and thirdly, the conflict between the individual and society, fourthly, purpose and meaning of human creativity and culture. In view of the different interpretations of the ideas of Leo Tolstoy Russian religious philosophy revealed itself not as a homogenous unity, but they demonstrated diversity of personal aspirations of its members. What they have in common are the appreciation of the literary work of Russian writer and his lofty moral claims, but at the same time, they separated themself from him, in order to remain faithful to Church dogmas.
Shihab Ad-Din as-Suhrawardi al-Maqtul
“Maqamat as-Sufiyya” is a small theoretical works of Shihab ad-Din as-Suhrawardi (ab. 1154-1191), the founder of the Philosophy of Illumination. It contains practical instructions and theoretical reflections and proofs. As-Suhrawardi especially notes terminology used by philosophers and terminology used by sufis in “Maqamat as-Sufiyya”.
Veṅkaṭanātha, also known as Vedānta Deśika, is one of the most significant figures of Indian philosophy of the 13th-14th centuries. His contribution to viśiṣṭādvaita-vedānta allowed to establish it finally as a philosophical system. Deśika justified its doctrines and defended the teachings of his predecessors from the criticism of other philosophical schools, especially, Śaṅkara’s advaita-vedānta. Before the advent of the works of Deśika, which are about 120, the followers of viśiṣṭādvaita of Rāmānuja paid attention mainly to theological aspects of the teaching. We present the main concepts of the Veṅkaṭanātha’s philosophical teaching and analyze his contribution to the development of viśiṣṭādvaita in this article. The main tasks and problems which had been solved by this philosopher in his treaties were described, three important ontological concepts were outlined: the concept of substance and attribute, the theory of relation and the concept of cause and effect. Six types of substance and its theories were consecutively considered (God - īśvara, the individual soul - jīva, knowledge - jñāna, the transcendental substance - nitya-vibhūti, time - kāla and matter - prakṛti), its division on the conscious and non-conscious, material and non-material entities. The theory of knowledge was reviewed in details: the essence of knowledge and its functional characteristics were defined as well as the question of true knowledge.
The paper attempts to investigate literary anthropology of W. Iser, created by him on the basis of receptive aesthetics. It is included a perspective of the historical and theoretical formation of Iser’s theory, as well as an actual point of view, related to the “anthropological turn” of humanities. There is an intention to demonstrate the philosophical value of Iser’s conception. It is emphasized the problem of subjective experience, the key features of which can be revealed through the study of the process of reading fiction. Iser defines his approach to the study of literature as functional, considering fiction as a medium in communication between text, reality and the reader. The focus of attention is on the transformations of subjectivity, involved through imagination in reading. Human presence, linked with a transcendental position, becomes apparent in the process of reading; however, it turns out to be connected with the essential uncertainty, the constant variability of subjective attitudes. Literature is explored as a medium of such an anthropological feature as human’s own inaccessibility for her|himself.
A brief afterword to the translation of the article “Leo Tolstoy and Russian Religious Philosophy” written by modern Swiss researcher Regula M. Tsvalin presents the current issue investigation on the history of Russian Thought. This research was carried out at the Institute of Ecumenical Studies of Theological Faculty of Fribourg University (Switzerland). The Sergij Bulgakov Research Center (German Forschungsstelle Sergij Bulgakov) was founded on the basis of the University of Friborg in 2011. Translation, commenting and publication of the German-language S.N. Bulgakov’s collected edition (German Werkausgabe von Sergij Bulgakov in deutscher Sprache) are main tasks of Sergij Bulgakov Research Center. Currently, the first three volumes of Russian thinker’s collected edition included “Philosophy of the economy”, “Nature in the philosophy of V.l. Solovyov” (1 volume) and “Autobiographical notes” (2 volumes) have been prepared and published by their members. The third volume, appeared at the end of 2017, includes a bibliography of S.N. Bulgakov’s works. This biography claims to be the most complete and precise for today. In addition, the reader will be also able to get acquainted with other research areas developed at Sergij Bulgakov Research Center covered the history of Russian Thought and have no direct relationship to the creativity and personality of national philosopher-theologian.
The article identifies two senses of the theory of controversy developed in the traditional Indian culture - logical and religious-philosophical (metaphysical). The researchers didn’t ever rise the problem of their differentiation because Indian philosophers did it by default, and for the Western reader of their texts two consequences of the division - the use of logic for destruction of logic (as it was in the Madhyāmaka school), or fixation of rules for virtually endless justification procedure (as it was in Jaina dialectic) - look like absurdity. However, in India, the need of discursive thinking was recognized, but the ability of thinking was never treated as absolute, and rational methods were used for the formation of convictions in the truth of metaphysical super-rational theses. Two named meanings are discernible in such works as the Buddhist canonical text “Kathāvatthu” and as Jaina canonical text “Stānāṅga-sūtra”. The conjunction of the two senses of the controversy determined the lack of ideal of objective truth in Indian logic, and that conjunction became the premise of two Jaina dialectical concepts: syād-vāda and naya-vāda, which are the complements to ontological Jaina concept of anekānta-vāda. Not accidentally Umāsvāti, Kundakunda - the founders of Jaina philosophy - paid attention to the naya-vāda. The author analyses the logical structure of discussion from “Kathāvatthu”, where the reality of the empirical subject (ātman) is argued, and the contradictions in the teachings of the opponents of the substantiality of the soul (ātman) are showing.
The article elaborates on two significant notions of Heidegger’s philosophy - “production” and “creation” - representing different ways in which being and Dasein relate to each other. We show that the process of creation is rooted in a “non-metaphysically” understood concept of nature, that is, in the kinetic character of being, which is essentially different from the understanding of being as eidos. If nature is seen as “being as such”, as the source of any creation and any relation (and the possibility of relation), then “technical” dimension becomes a part of natural process, opening a prospect of a new understanding of technology in communion with poetry and thought.
SOBOLNIKOVA E.N., PROUD D.
The article begins by defining evil, rejecting proffered negative definitions, for example, evil is privation, from which little further insight is obtainable, nor progress to be made towards a resolution of the problem, in favor of a more a constructive definition of evil in terms of an abnegation of responsibility for, or commitment to, one’s dictions or actions. This is an attitude that is both irrational and unintelligible, enabling a connection to be made between Plotinus’ view of evil as unintelligible matter, that is, impassive and inactive nature; and Hegel’s view of evil as that which is real and active, but against reason. For Plotinus, evil is formless matter, matter that is unintelligible, separated from the intellect, unlimited because not bounded by conceptual categories; and hence, what is evil is all darkness. For Hegel, for whom the rational is actual and the actual is rational, evil is an irrational perversion of the world’s inner essential rationality. But these ideas can be connected, for the purpose of finding a solution to the problem of evil, through a more specific understanding of the concept that we offer; that evil is a failure of commitment, a denial of responsibility for one’s actions; and this is in itself both irrational and unintelligible. We can then demonstrate that what that evil, though it certainly exists, is imperfection, and the good, being rational, is already complete and fulfilled and firmly established in the world, and therefore evil cannot possibly oppose it from any position of equivalence; for the good is rational and therefore true, whereas evil is irrational and therefore false.
SKOROKHODOVA TATIANA G.
Based on the sources on religious-philosophical thought of the Bengal Renaissance (XIX - early XX century), author represents the process and results of creating of the Hinduism’s image by Brahmo Samaj leaders (Rammohun Roy, Debendranath Tagore, Keshubchandra Sen) and Neo-Hindu thinkers (Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, Swami Vivekananda). Perceived from European orientalists, the term ‘Hinduism’ was filled the meanings and content by Bengal thinkers according to the epoch’s needs. For explaining of the features of the image construction method and results, multiple influences on Bengali thinkers are described, such as the influences of traditional Sanskrit education and intellectual culture, caste consciousness, Islam, Christianity, European orientalism and scientific rationalism. Using hermeneutical, axiological and comparative methods, the Bengal thinkers had created the image of Hinduism, which contained the experience of critical analysis of indigenous religious trends and the experience of creation of ‘ideal type’ (M. Weber) of native religion. General image of Hinduism has two sides in representation of positive and negative facets both for Indians and for the World.