ВЕСТНИК МОСКОВСКОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА. СЕРИЯ 18: СОЦИОЛОГИЯ И ПОЛИТОЛОГИЯ

1029-3736

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова"
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=8383

Content

THE FORMATION OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN THE EVERYDAY PRACTICES: THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

POLYAKOVA NATALYA L.

He article analyzes the foundations methods and theoretical limits of the traditional sociological theories of social inequality. These theories do not distinguish methodologically between agence and structure. This makes such a theory of social inequality just a “social taxonomy”.The theories of A. Giddens and P. Bourdieu are viewed as the contemporary theoretical and methodological constructivist approaches to social inequality. They are based on the notions of “social practices”, “symbolic categorization”, “distinction”, “life style” (P. Bourdieu) and “reflexive structuration” (A. Giddens). The analysis demonstrates the lack of historical dimension in these theories.The article proves the need to analyze the basic everyday practices which give rise to social inequality. It is necessary to broaden the sphere of sociological research and use the historical perspective. It should also include as its object the system of social inequality in pre-modern societies.The article strives to achieve this by analyzing such pre-modern social practices of social inequality as inclusion/exclusion based on mechanisms of stigmatization, lanquage and ethuic-religions tradition.

GENDER PROBLEMATICS IN WESTERN CLASS ANALYSIS: THE DYNAMICS OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

GAVRILYUK TATYANA V.

He article represents an analytical review of the axiomatics of sociological approaches to class analysis, taking into account gender differentiation since the1940s till nowadays. The problems of primary units selection of the class analysis, conceptual grounds for determining the class position of women and the features of their social status, conditioned by this position, ways of normalizing gender inequality in conventional approaches and criticizing their legitimacy have been considered in the research. It has been found that within the framework of the structural and functional approach of T. Parsons, the class status of the individual is ascetic, the main mechanism for its acquisition and transmission is kinship, while gender inequality is regarded as condition for maintaining the stability of the social system. The changing structure of employment and women’s emancipation has led to the revision of the conventional approach foundations by problem consideration of families as the primary units of class analysis. Subsequently, the dominant approach of J. Goldthorpe eliminates the gender inequality aspect, linking the class position of the household with the position of the partner who plays a leading role in its economic provision. E.O. Wright’s approach, representing an influential neo-Marxist alternative model of class analysis, presupposes the existence of an individual actor as the initial element of class analysis. At the same time, the author emphasizes the existence of exploitation relations in the family, as well as the high degree of risk and uncertainty of the social status of a significant number of women. Awareness of the role of individualization in social dynamics, changes in the structure of the global economy and the consequences of de-industrialization in the 1990s changed the original axiomatics of class analysis. The focus of attention has shifted from the disputes about the criteria of class differentiation to the analysis of real differences in people’s way of life, generated by social inequality. Modern studies of social inequality take into account the intersection of gender, class, racial and other characteristics of individuals and communities.

THE CONCEPTION OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN THE SASKIA SASSEN`S WORKS

GRIBOVA KRISTINA L.

The article deals with the inequality problem based on S. Sassen’s work “Expulsions: brutality and complexity in the global economy”, in which the researcher presents her understanding of causes and essence of social exclusion processes in globalization context and there is assessment of the consequences of these processes in terms of the extent of impact on the social system. On the basis of the modern literature analysis the author considers problems of social inequality, determinates the subject field and perspective directions of the research, in terms of which S. Sassen’s work is a new and the most significant approach. The author highlights theoretical and methodological foundations of the S. Sassen’s work, focusing on research techniques to demonstrate implicit trends, which are often overlooked in sociological analysis courses. The examples, given in the article, illustrates the essence of the “expulsions” process, typical for the period of the late XX century. This is a capitalist system formation time, aimed to generate profits in all areas of human life (economic, social, legal, environmental, etc.), which is characterized by an uncontrolled nature. As a result, inequality is embodied not only in direct income inequality, but also forms a whole “excluded space” consisting of marginalized groups, those who are deprived of social benefits, those who migrate because of the large-scale redemption of land by foreign governments for production purposes, those who are detained, etc. It is important to develop statistical indicators and conceptual tools that would allow, in particular, to emphasize this part of the population, and, in general, to make an adequate representation of the real scale of social inequality and poverty.

COMMUNITIES IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

DOBRINSKAYA DARYA E.

The transformational potential of Internet technologies is undeniable today. This applies to all spheres of social life, and this, of course, affects a variety of social practices and social interactions. In the focus of sociologists there are problems that are somehow connected with the influence of the Internet on society. Modern communities are also under scrutiny. What is their nature, their forms and features of functioning? It’s about understanding whether modern communities are a fundamentally new type of social association or whether Internet technologies provide only additional tools for continuing the interactions that are characteristic of traditional communities. The article carries out the historical-sociological analysis of the concept of “community”. Various approaches to the definition of modern communities and their types are analyzed. Considering the Internet space as a new social space and the Internet as a revolutionary means of communication, it is proposed to carry out an analysis of virtual communities in terms of the presence or absence of characteristics in these communities that are alternative to traditional communities. The conclusion is made that the processes of hybridization are typical for modern communities, which implies the actual consolidation of the properties of real and virtual communities.

THE EDITORS OF THE INTERNET MEDIA AS A SPECIFIC SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

MOLCHANOVA OLGA I.

The article is devoted to the identification of specific features of the social organization edition of the Internet media. The purpose of this article is to consider the network edition from the point of view of a new form of social organization of modern specialists. The principles of organization of its functioning, interaction of editorial staff with the target audience, technological capabilities of measurement of various parameters in order to identify its information needs are considered on the example of the typical small online magazine. The objectives of the study include the consideration of the concepts of “online publication” and “Internet media” in the relevant Federal legislation, the analysis of the functioning of the online magazine “Peter Online”, the identification of specific online publication methods of working with the audience. The data obtained in the measurement of classroom indicators make it possible to study the behavioral characteristics of different segments of users and analyze the effectiveness of advertising messages. As a result, it can be noted that the Internet media - a publication, implemented as a resource on the Internet, which has interactivity, multimedia, hypertextuality. These characteristics distinguish online media from traditional publications. The editorial office of the online media is a social organization in which specific relationships are formed due to the status-role hierarchy and the common goal of the team. The network organization of the editorial Board has both pros and cons. The undeniable advantage is the technological possibility of studying the audience, interactive communication methods with it that allows you to build a strategy for the development of the publication.

О ПРОВЕДЕНИИ КРУГЛОГО СТОЛА “ЛОББИЗМ КАК НЕФОРМАЛЬНЫЙ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ: ПРОБЛЕМЫ, НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЕ МОДЕЛИ, МЕХАНИЗМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ”

27 апреля 2018 г. на базе кафедры политологии и социологии политических процессов социологического факультета МГУ был проведен круглый стол по теме “Лоббизм как неформальный политический институт: проблемы, национальные модели, механизмы и технологии”.Целью круглого стола было обсуждение актуальных проблем изучения лоббизма как неформального политического института, структурного элемента механизма функционирования демократических социально-политических систем.On April 27, 2018 at the Department of Political Science and Sociology of Political Processes of the Faculty of Sociology of Moscow State University, a round table was held on the theme “Lobbyism as an Informal Political Institute: Problems, National Models, Mechanisms and Technologies”.The purpose of the round table was to discuss topical issues of lobbying as an informal political institution, a structural element of the mechanism of democratic systems. The analysis of the problem involved the consideration of lobbyism in historical, social, political, economic, cultural and methodological aspects. Current section proposes readers series of publications of those authors who participated in the round table, prepared on the basis of their speeches and sum- maries of the discussion materials.

LOBBIZM AS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT OF THE MECHANISM OF FUNCTIONATION OF SOCIO-POLITICAL SYSTEMS

FEDORKIN NIKOLAY S.

The article reveals the place and role of lobbying in socio-political systems mechanism of functioning in democratic countries. The American version of the group approach to politics and its perception of the European continent are considered in the historical context. The concept of lobbying as a certain activity of pressure groups its mechanism and functions are specified. The concepts of lobbying and corruption correlation is revealed. The features of lobbying in the developing countries are identified. Lobbying is considered as a formal and informal institution of socio- political systems mechanism of functioning.

SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP AS A MECHANISM OF AGREEMENT OF GROUP INTERESTS

DEHANOVA NATALYA G.

The article deals with the features of representation of interests in the system of social partnership of modern Russia. Two main approaches to the category of “social partnership” are analyzed: narrow, in which the social partnership is understood as the relationship between employers, employees and trade unions in the labor sphere and broad, considering social partnership as intersectoral social interaction between the three sectors of society - government body, commercial enterprises and non- profit organizations in order to solve the problems of the social sphere. The conditions influencing the process of institutionalization of various models of social partnership are analyzed. The author pays special attention to the process of formation of the Institute of social partnership in modern Russia. The negative factors hindering the formation of an effective, rather than formal, system of social partnership are identified: the underdevelopment of civil society institutions, the weakness of trade unions, the lack of effective representation of employers, too strong state dominance, inequality of the parties. The use of foreign experience of non-confrontational ways of regulating social relations should be adapted to Russian realities.

THE DUALISTIC NATURE OF LOBBYING IN MODERN DEMOCRACIES

KANEVSKIY PAVEL S.

He development of lobbying in the modern world is directly related to the dynamics of democratic regimes. The interaction between interest groups and the state is inherent in the nature of constitutional democracies. However, as shown in this article, lobbying in a democracy can be viewed from two opposite perspectives - as a continuation of the spirit of democracy and the development of a dialogue between the civil society and the state and as a deviation from the principles of representative democracy. The article analyzes the categories of public and private interests and it is shown that the interpretation of the role of interest groups and lobbying in a society depends on how we understand the interest and whom we consider as carriers of political interests. It is shown how in the XXth century a classical discussion was developing around the role of interest groups in politics and that this discussion has not lost its relevance today.

POLITICAL CULTURE AS A FACTOR OF CIVILIZED LOBBYING ESTABLISHMENT IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA

KARPOVA NATALIA V.

The article is devoted to the study of civilized lobbyism formation in contemporary Russia in the context of the political culture peculiarities. The author explains the use of the concept of “civilized lobbyism” from the standpoint of the presence of various interpretations of lobbying in political science, which prevents a clear separation of legitimate and illegitimate forms of interests’ representation, while the object of research is primarily the legal technologies of influence on power.Political culture is regarded as one of the subjective factors determining the functioning of the mechanisms of interests’ representation in the political system, as well as the specifics of lobbying activities in each particular state. The influence of political culture on the process of lobbying in Russia is analyzed not only at the level of political orientations and behavior of individuals and groups, but also at the level of institutional structures. To study the impact of the political culture on the formation of social practices of lobbying, the author refers to the institutional concept of D. North, in which the mechanism of functioning of social and political institutions is revealed through the correlation of formal and informal rules, norms, attitudes and behaviours.In the context of the development of the democratic representation of interests in contemporary Russia particular attention is given to the problem of preserving and dominating historically established authoritarian orientations in the relations of society and power, as well as the traditions of paternalism and clientellism. However, the author believes that it is not correct to reduce the influence from the political culture mostly to the national traditions. It is concluded that the fundamental condition for the development of civilized lobbying in present day Russia is the is the parallel formation of legal foundations and the corresponding matrix of political culture, both at the level of subjects of lobbying relations and at the level of interests’ representation institutions.

TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF LOBBYING IN RUSSIA

PAVROZ ALEXANDER V.

His article considers the features of the development and institutionalization of lobbyism in Russia. The author analyzes the problems of Russian lobbyism and notes the prospects for its further development. The article emphasizes the need to adopt a law on lobbying in Russia and points out that lobbying, as a socio-political institution, can become a means of systemically solving many problems of Russian society.

PERSPECTIVES OF RUSSIAN LOBBYING IN THE US

SUSHENTSOV ANDREY A.

Despite the panic in the American media surrounding Russian interference in American affairs, today Russia does not have its own full-fledged lobby in the United States. Russian experts are excluded from the American foreign policy debate, even in those matters that affect Moscow directly. Speakers invited to the Congress spoke, as a rule, with criticism of the Russian government. Meanwhile, in the United States exists a request for an alternative opinion of experts from Russia. Americans ignore weak arguments and propaganda, but are ready to accept useful criticism and discussion. The key to the success of Russia’s lobbying aspirations may be the creation in Washington of a respectable analytical center expressing the interests of Moscow and actively participating in American foreign policy discussion.

LOBBIZM IN RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF MODELS OF POLITICAL DECISION MAKING: IS EVOLUTION POSSIBLE?

TIMTCHENKO ALEKSEY N.

The Russian political system decision-making models are evolutionizing. Following the trend lobbying models and methods evolve from policy managing to informal practice. The analytical policy-managerial cycle model shows lowering of public and rising corporative lobbying tools. Which remove the lobbing institutionalisation problem. Russia legislative and managerial institutionalisation examples verify lobbying evolution from interest accommodation framework to obligatory tool for policy and public representatives interactions via lobbyists.

CONCEPTUALIZATION OF APPROACHES TO THE INTERPRETATION OF THE PHENOMENON OF LOBBYING

FELDMAN PAVEL J.

The theory of interest groups and other pluralistic concepts for the study of domestic socio-political realities. As an alternative, a network paradigm is proposed, suggesting the existence of inseparable links between state and non-state actors. Within the framework of the concept of political networks, lobbying acts as one of the key communication mechanisms of hierarchically unorganized institutions and actors. In addition, the article notes a discord between strict (scientific) and philistine approaches to the interpretation of the phenomenon of lobbyism. In this regard, it seems necessary to clarify the content of this concept, taking into account the Russian political specifics.

ROME CLUB AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX AND THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

SIDORINA ANASTASIYA V.

The article analyzes the main prerequisites for the emergence and further development of the Сlub of Rome2. The second half of the XX century is seen as a period of qualitative transformation of all aspects of social life. The emergence of the Сlub of Rome in this period is seen as a response to the ongoing transformation processes. Globalization and the scientific and technological revolution are becoming the basic prerequisites for the formation of global problems of human civilization. Global problems are being analyzed at the international community level. The first reports of the Club of Rome analyzed the global problems of our time in the context of “society - nature” with the using computer modeling methods. If the first reports were characterized only by an assessment of the current state of civilization and forecasting its further development (with an emphasis, as a rule, on pessimistic aspects), then the subsequent works of the members of the Club of Rome is characterized by an attempt to build a model out of the existing crisis and the further sustainable development of civilization. The second group of reports of the Сlub develops in the framework of the analysis of interaction in the system “society - individual”. This is partly due to the fact that social problems are becoming more acute, primarily the problem of confrontation between the “rich North and the poor South”. Within the framework of these works, the idea that modern global problems are not only environmental and economic problems, they are problems of political and institutional order, they are demographic, cultural, ideological, they are problems of the crisis of the basic value structures of modern civilization is gaining popularity. The authors of the reports lead us to the need to build a new ideological paradigm, which will be the basis of a new global ethics. The creation of a new ethics of international cooperation is considered as a basic and key condition for overcoming the existing crisis.

FORMATION OF THE REGULATORY FUNCTIONS OF THE SOCIAL STATE

VASILIEV VLADIMIR P.

The article analyzes the stages of formation of the principles of the welfare state, the development of its models. The basic model of a market economy does not deny the essential role of the state in socio-economic processes. It is shown that each of the stages is complementary to the fundamental characteristics of the phenomenon of the welfare state, based on new social practices. Historical evolution is represented by the enrichment functions of the state and business along the trajectory of the welfare state - social market economy - the welfare state. A central element of the social state is the social insurance institution, emerged in the socio-labor relations as a form of interaction of employees and employers with trade unions and the state. The dominant feature of the social market economy is to ensure free entrance of citizens in market activity and related functions of the state to ensure availability to markets of labor and capital, ensuring competition and private property rights. Welfare society based on a powerful upsurge of economic dynamics and productivity marks the transition to a new quality of life and overcoming social exclusion. Illustrates the emerging tendency to increase the share of the state in ensuring social economic dynamics. Identified positive and negative aspects of this process. For the practice of public administration in Russia proposed restructuring of the budget expenditures and insurance payments.

METHODS OF MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVENESS OF AVERAGE PRICE MANAGERS IN CREDIT AND FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS OF RUSSIA

AZHIEVA IRADA A., KORGOVA MARINA A.

Nowadays the situation in the sphere of social and economic development of Russia determines the special importance of organization activity of credit and financial orientation. The insufficient efficiency of activities of the credit and financial organizations of modern Russia is a consequence the low production of personnel’s work, one of the reasons of which is the existing system of motivation and stimulation.Middle managers in financial institutions are an important part of management personnel. They are the link in the organization: it is impossible to obtain results from managers of other levels and the organization as a whole without their effective work.Today the role of middle managers in achievement of efficiency of organizational activities is underestimated. The system of their motivation and stimulation needs enhancement.The article presents the data of a sociological survey, which analyzed the state of the system of motivation and incentives for managers of middle management in10 modern Russian credit and financial organizations, and the application of specific methods, forms and tools of motivation are explored.The methods and their forms of motivating and stimulating the work of mid- level managers in the credit and financial organizations of modern Russia do not constitute a system. It is a conglomeration of different approaches, schemes, methods, means that do nоt constitute a single whole.At the present time the system of motivation and stimulation of middle managers can not be considered balanced and sufficient. It lags far behind the best foreign analogs and needs substantial optimization. Moreover, the task of catching-up modernization, and the task of primacy in the world market of banking services, is not facing Russian financial institutionsThe authors formulate directions for improving the motivation and incentives for middle managers in Russian credit and financial organizations, and give recommendations on the use of motivational methods and tools.

ThE BaSiS of comPETiTion aS a Social PhEnomEnon and iTS fEaTurES in ProfESSional acTiviTy

EMELYANOVA LIYDMILA A.

The author analyzes the fundamentals of social competition and its specific features in Russia. As the basic prerequisites for social competition, the author considers the activity in which its subjects enter into various forms of interaction and relationships, including competitive ones, objective and subjective differences between people and their communities - historical, socio-political, socio-economic, socio-cultural, international.Competition manifests itself in developing living and social systems, from which stem its two main varieties - biological and social, between which there is continuity. In the living nature, competition is manifested, as shown by Charles Darwin, within one species and between different species, in the fight against life conditions, leads to the natural selection and evolution of species. Competition in society has its own characteristics. At the same time, competition in the animal world and society, as P. Kropotkin has shown, is associated with various forms of cooperation, mutual assistance, which are dominant and more conducive to progress than competition.The transition of Russia from the socialist system of public relations with a planned economy to a capitalist system with a market system of development created the foundations of competition in the country. This transition is influenced by traditional socio-cultural characteristics, as well as current processes in society and in the world.This article considers the competition of collective subjects of professional activity as one of the types of social competition, its structure, typology, and basic functions are revealed. Competition is defined as a system of interaction of individual, group and collective subjects of professional activity, characterized by the achievement of goals of activity and advantages in the context of confrontation with those pursuing the same goals and advantages by other actors.

POLITICAL MOODS OF RUSSIAN YOUTH: COMMON STATE AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

STANEVICH ANASTASIA YU.

The following article highlights the applied aspect of studying of political moods. The author gives definition of under investigation phenomena on the grounds of theoretical analysis of approaches of sociologists to studying of political moods.The applied aspect of given work is connected with analysis of results gathered during initiative all-Russian poll which was conducted on December 15-25 of 2017. The poll was executed among young people in the age of 18-30 years old. The survey was conducted online. According to the author’s definition, political moods include the following categories: political attitudes, political expectations and political be- haviour. Given categories provide the basis for formation of indicator groups, on which the author’s survey is conducted. The following indicators express political attitudes: interest to politics, attitudes to democracy, interaction with the authority and their evaluation, evaluation of political atmosphere and attitudes towards op- position. Political expectations are understood as the set of the following indicators: expectations from authority and from presidential elections in March 2018. Politically directed behaviour is understood as intention to participate personally in politics and the forms of participation, readiness to vote and to participate in protest actions. The author offers to review the results of her survey, in which it is emphasized on demography features of political moods of Russian youth.By results of the survey, it was revealed that political moods of Russian youth are contradictory: on the one hand, young people give neutral-negative evaluations of political reality, on the other hand, they are set-up to stability and at the same time, they demonstrate low political activity.

СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ НЕСПРАВЕДЛИВОСТЬ В СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ ИЗМЕРЕНИИ: О XII МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ “СОРОКИНСКИЕ ЧТЕНИЯ”

КАНЕВСКИЙ ПАВЕЛ СЕРГЕЕВИЧ, НОВОСЕЛОВА ЕЛЕНА НИКОЛАЕВНА

Материал посвящен итогам проведения XII Международной конференции “Сорокинские чтения”, проходившей под названием “Социальная несправедливость в социологическом измерении: вызовы современного мира”.Current article is dedicated to XII International scientific conference “XII Sorokin Readings. Social Injustice through the Lens of Sociology: Contemporary Global Challenges”.

ОБ ИТОГАХ ПРОВЕДЕНИЯ СЕКЦИИ “СОЦИОЛОГИЯ” XXV МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ, АСПИРАНТОВ И МОЛОДЫХ УЧЕНЫХ “ЛОМОНОСОВ-2018”

КАНЕВСКИЙ ПАВЕЛ СЕРГЕЕВИЧ, НОВОСЕЛОВА ЕЛЕНА НИКОЛАЕВНА

Материал посвящен итогам проведения секции “Социология” Международной конференции студентов, аспирантов и молодых ученых “Ломоносов-2018”. Мероприятие предназначено для поиска и удержания талантливой молодежи, а также обмена опытом и знаниями между молодыми учеными из различных уголков России и мира.Article is dedicated to the analysis of “Sociology” session held as a part of the International conference for students, post-graduate students and young scientists “Lomonosov-2018”. The event is oriented towards talented young people, as well as exchange of experience and knowledge between young scientists from different parts of Russia and the world.

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