Zagretdinov I. Sh., Kucherov V.V., Zakharov Ya. V., Shabanov I.I.
The article is devoted to the one-hundredth anniversary of Teploelektroproekt Institute, and presents areas of the institute’s current activities. Despite the difficult conditions, the financial and economic crisis, the Institute continues to be one of the leading design organizations in the field of developing projects of thermal power plants operating on organic fuels (coal, natural gas, fuel oil) with the installation of steam-turbine, steam-gas, gas turbine units and substations of various voltages, in terms of its production capacity, technical equipment, scope of work performed and scale of orders received. The technical policy of the Institute is orientated at the future, the key objective being ensuring a high scientific and technical level of projects, and technical and commercial proposals developed by the Institute. The Institute uses cutting edge technologies in the development of technical documentation; introduces advanced technical solutions throughout the project and conducts its uniform policy for the projects under development; provides consistently high quality of technical documentation on the basis of continuous improvement of its quality management system; improves methods of calculation/mathematical models and their implementation in the design process; ensures comprehensive and total accounting of the Customer’s requirements at preparation of technical and commercial offers, design of new and/or reconstruction and technical re-equipment of existing power-generating facilities; maintains close relations with scientific and design organizations, manufacturers of equipment, products and materials for the purpose of introduction of available advanced scientific and technical achievements in project documentation. Standardized layouts of the main buildings are designed for pulverized coal-based generating units of ultra-supercritical steam conditions, for circulating fluidized bed boilers, flue gas denitrification and desulphurization plants, for combined cycle plants. Examples of the power plant designing are presented for industrial facilities utilizing nonconventional fuels. A short description is given about the institute’s references in the field of construction of combined cycle and cogeneration plants as well as pulverized coal-based plants.
The history is presented of creation and activities of Teploelectroproekt JSC (formerly, Teploelectroproekt Institute), a flagship company in Russian design of thermal and nuclear power facilities. Results are considered of the Institute’s activities in severe conditions of the Civil War and foreign military intervention, in times of peace and during the Great Patriotic War, at the post-war years of restoration of industrial facilities, during the reform of Russia’s power sector after the breakdown of the USSR. The contribution of distinguished scientists and engineers in formation and development of the Institute over its 100-year long history is described. The Institute’s achievements are presented in both the creation of modern infrastructure of Russia’s power industry, and in construction of power plants abroad (in China, Iraq, India and other countries). The quality of design solutions largely depended on the level of technical equipment of designers. TEP acted as the driving force and head organization of the industry in introduction of information technologies in design. For many years, the Institute has been a talent pool for power industry executives. Among those who started their professional life there are I. I. Ugorets (USSR deputy power plant minister), Ya. I. Finogenov (USSR first deputy minister for power industry and electrification), A. A. Troitskiy (USSR Energy Ministry and USSR State Planning Committee), S. P. Goncharov (USSR Energy Ministry), to name just a few. Due to its great experience and united team, the Institute could maintain its leading positions in the design of construction of thermal power plants. The Institute is actively engaged in working on creating projects of state-of-art highperformance thermal power plants operating on organic fuels with steam-turbine, steam-gas and gas-turbine units. The Institute creates advanced innovative projects meeting the most stringent demands of customers, in accordance with industrual and environmental safety requirements.
Voropai N.I., Fedotova G.A.
The paper is devoted to the standing Scientific Workshop “Methodological problems in research on reliability of large energy systems”, which was organized in 1973 in Irkutsk at the Siberian Energy Institute of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences as a nation-wide workshop. Nowadays it is the International Scientific Workshop named after Academician Yu. N. Rudenko, which is well known in the community of scientists and experts in the energy sector of Russia, the former Soviet republics and other countries. Energy systems (ES) — those based on electricity, gas, oil and oil products, heat, etc., though diverse in terms of their physical nature, structural properties and specifics of functioning, have a certain commonality in the processes of production, transportation, distribution and storage of energy resources. Moreover, the interconnections and interdependence of energy systems within the fuel and energy sector, especially in emergency conditions, make it possible, at a necessary level of abstraction, to use identical techniques and methods of research, and ensure their reliability. All this allowed Yu. N. Rudenko, the organizer of the scientific workshop, to assign the workshop with its cross-sectoral status. In 2018, the workshop celebrated its 45-year anniversary; the workshop had come to the date as a recognized and highly respected international intellectual platform for discussing and solving urgent issues of reliability of energy systems, crosssectoral problems of studying and ensuring reliability and energy security. The paper presents a wide range of problems of ES reliability considered at the workshop sessions, as well as the results of solving the same. Special attention is paid to works initiated by the workshop and fulfilled using the results of studies of the workshop on unification of terminology in reliability of ES and energy security, the development of a concept of reliability in power industry and interstate technology reliability standards harmonized with international standards. The workshop continues to function successfully owing to its activities related to the integration and development of knowledge in the field of reliability of energy systems and energy security.
Zamalieva A.T., Ziganshin M.G.
Energy is the basic sector of the economy and the largest consumer of primary energy resources of any country, which is why the development of world energy is accompanied by global pressure on the environment. The issues are considered of reducing the atmospheric impact of emissions of thermal power plants, improving the reliability and working life of their units, systems, and plants as a whole. The principles are presented of development and improvement of technologies for processing industrial emissions of thermal power plants, the neutralization of which is currently relevant on a regional and global scale. Analysis is carried out of existing methods of cyclone and filtration treatment. An improved design of a cyclone filter is proposed, which allows to increase the reliability of gas turbine and steam-gas units of TPP, while ensuring the efficiency of separation of the suspended part of the flow at the gas treatment point (GTP) of TPP. Similar devices can also be used to increase the degree of cleaning atmospheric emissions released by the TPP coal dust preparation and flue gas systems at coal generation from fi ne particles of PM10 and PM2,5 classes (coal dust and ash), owing to reduction of the size of caught particles from average values for cyclones and wet scrubbers of the order of 5–10 μm to 0.5 μm. The design of the cyclone filter is improved as a result of research of cyclone filtration by methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A system of Reynolds-averaged equations of a single-phase Navier-Stokes flow is used for mathematical modeling of motion in the cyclone filter. To determine the efficiency of separation of the suspended part of the flow in the cyclone filter, the Rercomplex is used obtained by reducing a set comprising the Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of particle motion based on Newton's law to a dimensionless form. Numerical characteristics of the suspension sedimentation from a multiphase flow in a cyclone separator of specified dimensions are found by means of the Rercomplex. The results of bench tests of the proposed design of the cyclone filter are given.
Vasilyev P.F., Nesterov A.S., Kobylin V.P.
Transmission of electrical energy is the most important component of an electric power system. Optimization, modernization of the electric power transport system, increasing the capacity, as well as variability of connection arrangements, while maintaining the required level of reliability and safety, is regarded today as an urgent task for the energy industry as a whole. The article is devoted to the problem of determining the efficiency of the circuit design solution for a double-circuit three-phase power transmission line with an additional mode of operation — «with a split back-up phase» and determining its main reliability indicators. A circuit design solution for a double-circuit power transmission line with expansion of operating modes is presented in detail. The functional redundancy of the transmission line in accordance with the circuit design solution is based on switching of a conventional double-circuit power transmission line in the emergency mode to the single-circuit split-phase mode, which is the second working circuit. The ways of increasing the natural power of a double-circuit power transmission line are considered. The results of calculation of the capacity of a line with a split back-up phase and a comparison of the main parameters of overhead transmission lines with an additional mode of operation — with a split back-up phase — and power lines in conventional modes of operation, are presented. The results of calculations of reliability indicators are presented, such as the probable relative number of hours of interruption of power supply and the undersupply of electrical energy. A comparison of options have shown that the probable relative under-supply of the electric power of a double-circuit overhead transmission line with an additional operating mode — with a split back-up phase, is lower by approximately 13% than that of a conventional double-circuit power line, which will positively affect the maneuverability and reliability of the entire system.
Naumov I.V., Karpova E.V.
Disconnection of power consumers from power grids is quite a common event, with a wide range of consequences. Power supply interruptions can be caused by both casual events, and planned shutdowns. Disruptions in systems of power supply of consumers lead to a variety of adverse events (under-delivery of products, large-scale product rejection, failure of production equipment, etc.), which inflicts a significant economic damage. The retrospective analysis of the failure rate of electrical networks of the Right Bank and Left Bank districts of Irkutsk over 2013–2017 has been carried out. The analysis was based on the data from dispatching logs of observations on events of failures caused by emergency damage to the Southern electrical networks. It is established that the greatest number of failures occurs for such reasons as damage at substations, damage to consumer electrical networks, wire breakage in air and cable power lines as well as damage of switching equipment. Failures related to wind load, damage at packaged transformer substations, insulators and surge arresters are also analysed. The percentage rate of failures of electrical power networks caused by specific reasons from the total number of failures is presented. Besides, the analysis is performed of the duration of interruptions of power supply owing to damage of individual elements of power network equipment as well as the amount of electric energy undelivered for these reasons, and financial losses caused by these failures due to under-delivery of electric energy, with the average wholesale electricity prices taken into account.
Aminov R.Z., Burdenkova E. Yu., Portyankin A.V.
A method is presented for estimating the possible annual risk that a hydrogen superstructure at a nuclear power plant (NPP) may have in the production of explosive hydrogen. With the observance of safety rules in terms of receiving, storing, transporting and using hydrogen, it is possible to minimize the occurrence of fi re and explosion hazard situations on the hydrogen superstructure. Scheduled repair and overhauls with all diagnostics reduce emergencies and equipment failures in the same way. However, there is a likelihood for the equipment to be found in an abnormal state (breakdown, fi re and explosion) as a result of hydrogen leaks. Depressurization of equipment with leakage of explosive hydrogen in enclosed spaces concurrently with adverse attendant factors may lead to the destruction of the electrolysis plant due to fi re and explosion. With the help of the state graph, the probabilities of a failure of electrolysis equipment because of unplanned breakdowns and possible fi res or explosions indoors due to depressurization of equipment are estimated. To this effect, possible scenarios of breakdowns of the electrolyzer in one and two workshops are considered. In the calculations of the state graph, a system of linear equations was composed for steady-state values only. The calculations have shown that for a configuration involving two electrolysis plants, the possible annual risk would increase. Minimizing the annual risk can be achieved through boosting the capacity of the electrolysis plant still in operation by increasing its productivity in hydrogen and oxygen. The effect will only be achieved if the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is kept within 0.81 rubles/(kW·h) with a peak electricity tariff at 3.5 rubles/(kW·h).
Volkov A.V., Parygin A.G., Vikhlyantsev A.A., Druzhinin A.A.
The conventional solution for HAPPs is the use of reversible hydraulic machines operating both in the pump mode as well as in the turbine mode. At the same time, for example, a blade system of a hydraulic machine designed for the pumping mode has a high efficiency. However, in the turbine mode, the energy characteristics of such machine are far from optimal. Considering different patterns of micro- and mini-HAPPs (up to 100 kW) of modular design, it is most appropriate to use a pump and a turbine separately, since the efficiency of hydraulic machines is very important in the case of such low power. To date, approaches to the design of hydraulic turbines are quite developed and allow to achieve high energy performance [1, 2]. According to different data sources the level of axial turbine efficiency with power less than 100 kW is about 80÷91%. At the same time, for centrifugal pumps, especially those of low specific speed, the problem of increasing energy efficiency is very urgent. E.g., for pumps with a specific speed ns< 80 the efficiency level is usually 40 to 65%. The aim of the presented research is the development of methods of synthesis and optimization of the flow passages of centrifugal pumps using the approaches of the theory of optimal control and increasing energy performance of hydraulic machines. Various ways of local correction of geometry of flow passages are presented in the paper. As an alternative to empirical approaches, methods based on the control of the circulation distribution are considered in detail. Various mathematical dependences of the flow circulation on the coordinate of the point lying on the surface of the blade are analyzed. Possibilities of application of the theory of experiment planning in relation to the problems to be solved are considered.
Katenev G.M., Tumanovskii V.A., Stepanova T.A.
The article considers the Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling (CTIC) system — an experimental system for cooling the cycle air entering the gas microturbine unit. This enables to save electrical power of the unit generated at the design level in the period of seasonal increase in air temperature. Cooling of the air at the inlet to the turbocharger of the unit occurs up to its design temperature (which is, according to the ISO standard, equal to 15˚С). The basis of the CTIC model is an industrial cooling system based on a vapor compression refrigeration unit with a cold accumulator. Water ice is used as a cold storage medium in the accumulator, while ice water is used as a medium cooling the cycle air (ice water is water at a temperature of 0.5˚С – 1˚С). The eff ect of cooling of cycle air is achieved by pumping ice water coming from the cold accumulator through an air-to-water heat exchanger installed at the inlet to the turbocharger. The purpose of the study was to determine the operating time of a cold accumulator, depending on the speed of the circulating water. The experiments were carried out on a model of a cooling system with a cold accumulator having a 200 kg ice storage and working with the Capstone C-30 microturbine. Maintaining the temperature of the cycle air at its design level is achieved using a frequency-controlled circulation pump and a digital measurement and control system with the LabVIEW software package. The results of the study show that the considered CTIC system, while discharging the cold accumulator, is able to maintain the required design temperature of the cycle air at 15°C for 6 hours, which is quite enough to cover the peak load of the working day. Technical and economic parameters of the plant are evaluated.
Gracheva E.I., Naumov O.V.
One of the main objectives of the development of modern industry in Russia, along with an increase in the absolute volumes of electric power (EP) production, is to strengthen control over its more rational use. Saving EP and reducing the cost of its transmission along power distribution networks is of great importance for the country's energy sector. In terms of their physical nature, in terms of production, transmission and consumption, EP losses are no different from EP served to consumers. Therefore, the assessment of power losses in electrical networks is based on the same economic principles as the assessment of energy served to consumers. EP losses have a significant impact on the technical and economic parameters of the network, since the cost of losses is included in the estimated cost (reduced costs) and cost price (annual operating costs) of EP transmission. The cost component of losses in the cost of EP transmission has a large proportion. The article presents the results of research on the possibility of application of fuzzy regression analysis for problems of assessment and prediction of electric power losses in intrafactory networks. Initial information on the network is uncertain to some extent, which complicates application of traditional methods. The calculation is presented for conventional and fuzzy regression models, along with estimation of error of these models. The relevance of application of fuzzy regression analysis methods is determined by the difficulty of obtaining reliable information about the circuit and regime parameters of intrafactory networks, the probabilistic nature of change of the modes, as well as a whole complex of affecting factors, which are generally challenging for quantitative assessment. Advantages of application of fuzzy regression analysis consist in obtaining confidence intervals of required variables (value of electric power losses) for schemes of networks with uncertain initial information on their parameters, which is characteristic of intrafactory power supply systems, and enables to consider dynamics of their variation.