• Publisher Институт научной информации по общественным наукам Российской академии наук
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=32761

Content

Methodological challenge. Critical reflection. How to keep balance at the curves from visual precision to scientific validity and back

Ilyn M.V., Avdonin V.S., Fomin I.V.

The introductory article clarifies the title of the current issue of «METHOD» and explicates the purpose of the entire publication. It explains slight but telling differences between the Russian, English and German phrasings that expound the meaning of the title and purpose of the yearbook. Subtle but indicative differences between languages and modes of speech and thought highlight a major issue of knowledge transfer. The yearbook departs from knowledge transfer to a more incentive issue of convergence and divergence of cognitive skills. Introduction focuses on transdisciplinary organons. They derive from our basic cognitive abilities. The initial one is the faculty to tell relative degrees of our sensations (bigger - smaller, warmer - colder etc.) and then to rate sizes of things and intensity of processes. The following one is pattern recognition or our ability to single out certain ‘rated’ entities from their environment. The subsequent one is our capacity to assign meaning to the ‘recognized’ figures and forms of the world around. It further supplements with the gift to use words and images to grasp sense and to convey it. Each of the three fundamental cognitive abilities diverge into further generations of abundant skills and proficiencies. Elaborate methods of scientific research outreach to thresholds of our knowledge. Right there they intertwine with each other. Interdisciplinary linkages develop. Transdisciplinary prospects loom. We conceive imminent convergence of our methodological skills into three transdisciplinary organons congenial to the three cognitive abilities. The first one is metretics or the higher technique of measurement and calculus. It resides in mathematical and statistical studies. The next one is morphetics or the expertise of exploring forms, shapes and figures. It resides in all kinds of morphological, comparative, configurative and evolutionary research. The last one is semiotics or the art of processing sense and reference. It resides in still budding semiologies, cognitive arts and still rudimentary humanities.

Image: Emergent cognitive schemata and etymons

Ilyn M.V.

Russian homonyms that sound OBRAZ (image, impression, brand, way of doing things, icon) have common origin. They derive from an etymon and share the same cognitive and metaphor schema - the contour of cutting out something out of its background. This etymon and the cognitive schema parallels alternative etymons and cognitive schemata in Russian and other languages including Greek, Latin, English and German. A network of correspondences represents a broad conceptual space related to cognitive practices of pattern recognition. The article introduces an idea of pure cognitive schema cleansed of any contextual connotations and semantic load. Pure pattern may act as a figura in Hjelmslevian sense - a unit pertaining to expression plane and having no correspondence in content plane. Pattern recognition serves as a testing ground for debate on emergence of images with their distinct tokens (representamina), meanings (objects) and senses (interpretants). Hen and egg problem helps to elaborate emergence of rudimentary cognition with projected autopoietic automata and its further advancement into full-scale human intersubjectivity of languages and cultures. Wherever the winding of our research goes, on its circuits it returneth. Again we face innumerable images of the universe. They imprint in the memory which exceedes that of an elemental spontaneons automation and, in a series of metamorphoses, extends into human languages and cultures.

СУЖДЕНИЯ О КОНЦЕПТЕ ОБРАЗ

КОЛЕСОВ ВЛАДИМИР ВИКТОРОВИЧ

Image of State: A Semiotic Model

Fomin I.V.

The article is an attempt to provide fundamental semiotic definition of the notion of the image of state. General semiotic model of image is proposed and then developed into the politically saturated version, aimed at the study of representations of states. The proposed models are based on Peirce's notions of iconic sign and metaphor. Image is defined as a complex two-level sign with a first level sign ( primary sign ) playing the role of a sign vehicle and with all fragments of actuality ( facts ), similar to that primary sig n, playing the role of an object. This complex semiotic entity functions iconically, as the secondary interpretant emerges from the similarity between the primary sign and the facts that it refers to. Working this way, the image is capable of accumulation of acts of semiosis. Thus, image of a state is able to accumulate specific discourses about that state.

Image, ideology, archetype: Methodological aspects of studying the representation of power

Sannikov S.V.

The article is devoted to the methodological problem of analysis of the ‘rhetoric of the image’ in the aspect of correlation between the ideology, determined by the cultural framework (according to R. Barthes), and the archetype, providing transition of motives and images across the World culture (according to K.G. Jung). The author suggests an approach according to which the archetype is defined as the basic layer of the semiosphere, coding culture through the ideology. The analysis of the archetypic lines and ways of their manifestation in the course of the ‘rhetoric of the image’ is given in the example of medieval literary images of the rulers of the ‘barbaric kingdoms’.

Human Visual Experience, Sensorimotor Skills and Ensemble Representations

Sushchin M.A.

The article discusses the problem of the nature of human visual experience in the light of known objective limitations of the functioning and organization of the visual system. The sensorimotor approach to visual consciousness of J.K. O’Regan and the recent idea of ensemble representations are considered as the two most promising models for explaining the specificity of visual phenomenology. It is argued that both approaches can make a significant contribution to explaining the character of human visual experience, but only in cooperation rather than opposition or isolated development.

КОНСТРУИРУЯ РЕАЛЬНОСТЬ: "THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS". РЕФЕРАТИВНЫЙ ОБЗОР

КУМПАН ЕКАТЕРИНА НИКОЛАЕВНА

Synthesis in evolutionary biology and scenarios of interactions with social sciences

Avdonin V.S.

The interdisciplinary potential of a particular field of science often depends on its internal state and «interdisciplinary» processes. In the biology of the twentieth century, evolutionary syntheses played an important role, which enabled them to create powerful incentives for both the integration of the biological sciences themselves and for creating interfaces for their interaction with other sciences. The article examines the track of convergence of evolutionary biology (both within the framework of classical or standard synthesis, and within its «extended» version) with social sciences. It is proposed to consider this problem taking into account three possible scenarios of this rapprochement and to concretize it on three examples. As such examples, the author takes three theories that locate «on the borders» of modern evolutionary biology (and its syntheses) with the social sciences: the theory of genetic-cultural co-evolution, the theory of biological communication and the stochastic or «postmodern» theory of evolution. In the discussion, the first two serve as examples of the movement, respectively, «from biology» to social sciences and «from social sciences» to biology, and the third to examples of preserving the conditional «autonomy» of evolutionary biologists from the social sciences under the conditions of a revision of classical evolutionary synthesis. The results of the study are suggested to be taken into account when de- veloping a modern interface for the interaction of biology with the social sciences.

On the grammar and semantics of the genetic code

Zolan S.T.

The article addresses the possibilities of the linguа-semiotic description of the genetic code. The distinction between a biochemical substance and a semiotic form allows to describe relationships that are characteristic not so much for biological but for sign systems (the dichotomy of language and speech, the arbitrariness of the sign, the contextual dependence, the analog of lexical-semantic relations, synchrony and diachrony, textuality). The units of the dictionary (nucleotides) and categories of grammar (positions) are identified, the formation rules for the significant units of the genetic code (doublets and triplets) and their compositional semantics are described As the substance becomes more complicated, biochemical regularities are supplemented by lingua-semiotic ones. The coding ceases to be determined by the biochemical substratum, the abovementioned features that are typical mainly for semiotic systems arise. The formation and functioning of the genetic code seem to be not a result of the «frozen accident», but a manifestation of the general principles of the information processing (semiotization and textualization).

Genes, memes and signs

Patzelt Werner

The main questions of memetics are considered in the article - the theory and methodology of memes analysis, their nature, ontological status, functional role in the construction of socio-cultural reality. The author defines memes as cultural patterns and «building plans» for the formation of socio-cultural reality, and specifically considers their role in cultural and institutional evolution. In this analysis, it is proposed to apply algorithms common to biological and sociocultural evolution. The article also discusses the «production» and stabilization of sociocultural reality through the «epimemetic system» emerging in the course of sociocultural evolution; the application of morphological methodology in the study of these processes is analyzed.

Э. КИЛПИНЕН. МЕМЫ VERSUS ЗНАКИ: К ВОПРОСУ О ЗНАЧЕНИИ ЗНАКОВ ПРИРОДЫ И КУЛЬТУРЫ. РЕФЕРАТ

КИОСЕ МАРИЯ ИВАНОВНА

Press construals of the us evolution education debates: Applications of cognitive linguistics and corpus linguistics for discourse analysis

Barczewska Shala

This paper demonstrates the ways in which the triangulation of Cognitive Linguistics and corpus linguistics can be used for the purposes of discourse analysis. This is achieved against the backdrop of US press coverage of the current debate over human evolution in American society, primarily as regards its teaching in the public school system. In other words, it focuses is on the way in which language is used in the US press to present the controversy to the public. To do this, it combines computer-aided analysis of a corpus of nearly 1 m. words with manual analysis of selected articles. To date, most projects applying Cognitive Linguistics to discourse analysis have been restricted to aspects of the Cognitive Metaphor Theory. This project moves beyond those to include analysis of keywords, construal operations and image schemata to provide a broader picture of the debate. It is my hope that this project will contribute to the development of a growing interest in the application of the tools of corpus linguistics and theories of cognitive linguistics for discourse analysis.

ТРАНСФЕР ЗНАНИЙ И КОНВЕРГЕНЦИЯ МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ТРАДИЦИЙ

ФОМИН ИВАН ВЛАДЛЕНОВИЧ

ПРОЕКТ "ТРАНСФЕР ЗНАНИЙ И КОНВЕРГЕНЦИЯ МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ТРАДИЦИЙ: ОПЫТ МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНОЙ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ И ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ"

ИЛЬИН МИХАИЛ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ, АВДОНИН ВЛАДИМИР СЕРГЕЕВИЧ, АДИЛЬБАЕВ ТИМУР ШАРИБАЕВИЧ, ЕРЕМЕЕВ АНТОН ВАЛЕНТИНОВИЧ, ЗОЛЯН СУРЕН ТИГРАНОВИЧ, ЛОКШИН ИЛЬЯ МИХАЙЛОВИЧ, ПОРЕЦКОВА А.А., САМОРОДОВА А.В., СПИРОВ АЛЕКСАНДР ВЛАДИМИРОВИЧ, ФОМИН ИВАН ВЛАДЛЕНОВИЧ

Проект «Трансфер знаний и конвергенция методологических традиций: Опыт междисциплинарной интеграции политических, биологических и лингвистических исследований» нацелен на то, чтобы оптимизировать трансдисциплинарный обмен знаниями и их «перевод» на языки разных дисциплин, а также на то, чтобы восполнить методологический дефицит в новых, активно развивающихся областях междисциплинарных исследований, возникающих при пересечении или взаимодействии политических, биологических и лингвистических наук. Примеры подобного рода пересечений включают сравнительные институциональные исследования в социальных науках, политическую семиотику и анализ дискурсов, социолингвистику и социальную семиотику, когнитивные исследования, биосоциальную эволюцию, биополитику, биосемиотику, меметику и т.п. Равным образом изучаются внутридисциплинарный трансфер знаний и методологическая конвергенция на примере политической науки, заимствовавшей как отдельные методологические корпуса, так и корпуса знаний из философии, правоведения, социологии, лингвистики и отдельных естественных наук. Проект, таким образом, обращается к общей науковедческой проблеме возникновения новых исследовательских специализаций на базе уже ранее сложившихся. При этом в поле изучения вычленяются два основных аспекта. Первый связан с особенностями и способами трансфера знаний между двумя или более сложившимися специализациями и формируемой ими новой, а также с характером получаемых в результате новых знаний. Второй заключается в конвергенции используемых в ходе взаимодействия исследовательских приемов, техник и, шире, методологий. Основная цель проекта состоит в поиске общих закономерностей процессов трансфера знаний и методологической конвергенции. Этот поиск фокусируется, с одной стороны, на обнаружении фундаментальной близости, внутреннего родства как типов знаний, так и инструментов познания, а с другой - на прагматически обусловленном внешнем сродстве взаимодействующих исследовательских традиций. При этом учитывается, что общие закономерности трансфера знаний и методологической конвергенции в каждом конкретном случае возникновения новых исследовательских специализаций на базе ранее сложившихся находят свое специфическое проявление. Исследовательские задачи проекта решаются с опорой на развитие трансдисциплинарных возможностей трех фундаментальных органонов научного познания - метретического, морфологического и семиотического. Именно они выступают в качестве концептуального базиса при формулировании и предварительной проверке - на материале отдельных методологических синтезов - рабочих гипотез об общих чертах и характеристиках морфологического и семиотического инструментария исследований, а также при определении областей и направлений методологических трансдисциплинарных новаций, имеющих целью заполнение имеющихся лакун в практике изученных в проекте междисциплинарных областей трансфера знаний. Важными аспектами проекта являются также переход от простых аналогий к системному соотнесению гомологических сходств трансфера знания и перевода текстов, связь соответствующих сходств с фундаментальными когнитивными способностями.

From evolutional calculations to evolution of memes: Some general trends

Spirov A.V.

Among diverse scientific fields focused on evolutionary approaches to variety of objects and processes, we will be interested in those where Darwinian principals of variation, heredity and selection take place. Among the areas we concentrate our attention on those ones, where the evolving objects could be presented as the sequences of symbols, code lines, or even as a graph. These formal objects are the way to record the «individuals» heredity. It allows to mutate it by substituting, adding, or eliminating elements and to make crossover when offspring is produced from two parents. One more demand is the possibility to evaluate quantitatively the given individual's value for the evolutionary selection. Among the evolutions we will consider, first of all, Evolutionary Computations, computer simulation of biological evolution, directed (in vitro) evolution of biological macromolecules, biological evolution, technical evolution, and evolution of memes. In those examples of evolutionary processes, if we consider them ranked from the computer-implemented to the more and more humanitarian, several tendencies are clearly observable. First, we can track the tendency of using of more and more high-level languages to implement the evolutionary problem. Second, we can observe the tendency of the appearance of «building blocks» in the hereditary structures followed by the appearance of the crossover mechanisms capable of preserving the blocks. Third, the variation of the individual's hereditary structure is exercised by more and more sophisticated approaches. In different evolutionary fields the noticed tendencies are expressed in different degree and its exploration levels are different also. If so, we positive that the cross-dissemination of ideas between the diverse evolutionary areas would be mutually fruitful.

On problem of saltational reorganization of genotypes in population genetics and evolutionary computations

Eremeev A.V.

The problem of saltational changes of genotypes is considered both from the biological point of view, as it emerges in population genetics, and from the view point of evolutionary computations, where it corresponds to jumps between the basins of attraction associated to different local optima of a fitness function. We indicate that the problem of saltational transitions remains an open and topical research question not only in biology but also in the area of evolutionary algorithms.

ПРОБЛЕМА ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ЭЛЕМЕНТА В КОГНИТИВНЫХ СХЕМАХ ЭМЕРДЖЕНЦИИ В ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ, СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ И ГУМАНИТАРНЫХ НАУКАХ

АДИЛЬБАЕВ ТИМУР ШАРИБАЕВИЧ

О МОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ МЕТОДОЛОГИИ В КОГНИТИВИСТИКЕ

АВДОНИН ВЛАДИМИР СЕРГЕЕВИЧ

МОРФОЛОГИЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ И СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ ДИВЕРГЕНЦИИ И КОНВЕРГЕНЦИИ

ИЛЬИН МИХАИЛ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ

ОБРАЗНЫЙ ЯЗЫК КАК ТРАНСДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЙ ИНТЕРФЕЙС: ОТ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ МЕТАФОР К ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИМ И ОБРАТНО

АВДОНИН ВЛАДИМИР СЕРГЕЕВИЧ, АДИЛЬБАЕВ ТИМУР ШАРИБАЕВИЧ, АРТАМОНОВА ЮЛИЯ ДМИТРИЕВНА, ЗОЛЯН СУРЕН ТИГРАНОВИЧ, ИЛЬИН МИХАИЛ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ, ЛОКШИН ИЛЬЯ МИХАЙЛОВИЧ, ФОМИН ИВАН ВЛАДЛЕНОВИЧ

Scientific search: Theory, method, result

Retejum A.J.

The author shares his experience in empirical interdisciplinary studies of our planet and the Solar system. Main findings show that the most effective way of synthesis is to start work at the beginning with the center-periphery relations. A key role is assigned to the method of mental critical experiment.

ТЕОРЕТИКО-МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПОИСКИ В РОССИЙСКОЙ СОЦИОЛОГИИ: ОТ НЕЙРОНАУКИ ДО СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ ТЕОЛОГИИ. АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ОБЗОР

ЯДОВА МАЙЯ АНДРЕЕВНА

Л. РУТТИНГ, Г. ПОСТ, М. КЕЕСТРА, М. ДЕ РОО, С. БЛАД, Л. ДЕ ГРЕЕФ. ВВЕДЕНИЕ В МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ: ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА // ПОД РЕД. С. МЕНКЕНА, М. КЕЕСТРЫ. РЕФЕРАТ

АДИЛЬБАЕВ ТИМУР ШАРИБАЕВИЧ

С. БРИЕР. КИБЕРСЕМИОТИКА: ТРАНСДИСЦИПЛИНАРНАЯ ПАРАДИГМА ДЛЯ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ЕСТЕСТВЕННО-НАУЧНОЙ, СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ, ФЕНОМЕНОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ И ГУМАНИТАРНОЙ ПРОБЛЕМАТИКИ. РЕФЕРАТ

КИОСЕ МАРИЯ ИВАНОВНА

Л. ФЛОРИДИ. 4-Я РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ. КАК ИНФОСФЕРА ВИДОИЗМЕНЯЕТ ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКУЮ РЕАЛЬНОСТЬ. РЕФЕРАТ

ХЛЕБНИКОВ ГЕОРГИЙ ВЛАДИМИРОВИЧ

СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ СЕМИОТИКА: КОМПЛЕКСНОЕ ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ И СМЫСЛОВЫХ СТОРОН ОБЩЕСТВЕННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ И ЯВЛЕНИЙ

ИЛЬИН МИХАИЛ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ, ФОМИН ИВАН ВЛАДЛЕНОВИЧ

Social semiotics: The experience of the systematization of the terminological system

Gavrilova M.V.

Social semiotics is a new transdisciplinary field that explores material resources of communication and the way their uses are socially regulated and the social regulation of their use. The aim of the article is to systematize basic assumptions and principles of the theory of social semiotics in a form of a mind map and a glossary of key terms.

Social semiotics and the challenge of multimodality

Kress Gunther

It was confidently assumed in the «West» that language is the guarantor of what is distinctively human, rational, essential for reflection, capable of expressing every aspect of human life, but the semiotic world is changing rapidly. So now language is being challenged in its present dominant position by other means of representation (modes). That challenge goes by the name ‘Multimodality’, and it will have far-reaching effects on epistemology and ontology, and with that on all aspects of culture.

40 ЛЕТ НА ПУТИ К СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ СЕМИОТИКЕ. БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ КЛЮЧЕВЫХ РАБОТ

ФОМИН ИВАН ВЛАДЛЕНОВИЧ

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